Smart Solutions in City Transportation
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Car traffic reduction
Region : Europe
National GDP Per Capita (USD) : 15,431 (IMF, 2018)
City Population: 358,000
Year Implemented : 2015
National Gini Index : 30.8 (World Bank, 2016)
Tags : ENVIRONMENT MOBILITY ENERGY SMART LIGHTING
Technologies Utilized : Intelligent Transportation System, Sensors, Tracking devices, Solar panels, ARC cameras, CCTV cameras, Smart street lights, Transportation cards
Funding Source : Government, European Union
Project Cost : EUR 17,224,840
Project Savings :
Planned Project Duration : Ongoing
KPIs : Travel time reduction index, Number of registered users, Number of travels by bikes, Reduced power index, Power savings index
Project Context and Overview
Bydgoszcz’ relatively high population density and strong dependence on private vehicles resulted in traffic congestion. To alleviate this problem, city officials established a holistic initiative composed of four projects designed to improve public services, user experience, and safety.
The Bydgoszcz Urban Bike (Polish abbrev. BRA) is a 24 hour bike rental service network available in summer, spring, and autumn. Bydgoszcz City Card (Polish abbrev. BKM) is public transportation card system that facilitates user experience and allows a more effective payment system. The Street Light Control project saw the installment of smart street lights to manage and save energy. The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) consists of the implementation of sensors and tracking devices to optimize traffic and transport management.
ITS has four functions: (1) control of movement with video monitoring, (2) public transport management with dynamic stop information, (3) parking information, and (4) guiding vehicles to alternative roads.
Project Planning and Implementation
All the projects were initiated and are being currently managed by the Urban Streets and Public Transport Authority (Polish Abbrev. ZDMiKP). The tendering process for the Intelligent Transportation System started in 2011 and ended in 2012. The following year, Bydgoszcz started to develop the ITS in collaboration with Sprint S.A. of Bydgoszcz, an IT system integrating company. In 2015, they had a 90-day acceptance and implementation period before launching. ITS, Urban Bike, and Street Light Control were all inaugurated in 2015. City Card has been in place since September 2010.
ITS uses ARCP cameras (automatic vehicle feature recording) to calculate average travel times between individual points of transport corridors. ITS is comprised of 73 traffic signals, 64 ARCP cameras and 56 CCTV cameras (closed circuit television). Traffic control is based on the Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System (SCATS), developed in Australia and successfully adopted by many cities across the world. SCATS collects traffic data to optimize operation of traffic lights or other decisions based on traffic congestion, hour, and given exit or route. The system is highly reliable as communication among all components is based on single-mode optical fiber and devices work in ring topology. One superior application integrates all the subsystems.
Urban Bike stations have a screen, electronic lock, and are powered by batteries and solar panels. Each station is provided with terminals powered by photovoltaic cells. All user information is stored in safe cloud computing, Windows Azure. As of 2019, there are 53 stations and 510 bikes.
City Cards are proximity cards that include the user’s name and card identification number, allowing the system to store accurate data of the respective card user and electronic transport tickets.
Street Light Control makes use of smart street lights with sensors and built-in GPS receivers that monitor natural light, weather conditions, and traffic congestion. Street Light Control is connected to the CPA NET, a remote monitoring and management website that can be accessed from a computer or mobile device.
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS): PLN 55,785,000 = EUR 13,202,000 (85% of EU fund = EUR 11,222,000)
Bydgoszcz Urban Bike (BRA): PLN 4,094,000 = EUR 969,000 (3 years: 2015, 2016, 2017)
Bydgoszcz City Card (BKM): PLN 12,892,000 = EUR 3,051,000 (from September 2010 till December 2016)
Street Light Control: PLN 12,000 = EUR 2,840 (yearly)
Since the installment of ITS, travel time has been reduced by 13% and 30% for trams and cars, respectively. Bikes have become widely popular with residents and serves as a means of transportation. Within two years, more than 1,005,000 trips were taken by bikes. As of 2017, 199,900 cards have been issued, meaning that 56.2% of residents are making use of them. This number is continuously increasing. Power savings thanks to Street Light Control are about 15%.
Recommendations for Transfer
Cities with high population density, heavy traffic, and high number of private vehicles may find value in adopting these projects. Bydgoszcz’s use of SCATS shows the transferability of technology and resources across different cities. This technology is readily available and can be put to numerous applications in various locations. Cities interested in decreasing their use of fossil fuels can adopt projects such as Urban Bike, which can offer an alternative form of transportation and reduce pollution, and Street Light Control to reduce and manage energy use.
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